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Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell (1996), Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. Cambridge (MA), The MIT Press.

Growing Artificial Societies is an early collection of agent-based models where complex aggregate behavior is derived from the interactions of simple agents. It is one the most influential implementations of agent-based modeling in social science.

This page collects and makes any computer code publicly available, that implements, re-interprets and applies the models of Growing Artificial Societies. Please feel free to contribute by sending your code to:

guido.fioretti AT



  1. For many years the original code has not been available at the site of The Brookings Institution. However, Luc Girardin included an early Ascape version of Sugarscape in a collection of Computational Models of Social Systems. If you wish to modify the code, Valeria Baldelli contributed the following tips:


  3. Francois Bousquet reproduced the models of Growing Artificial Societies within the CORMAS project.


  5. Some of the models of Growing Artificial Societies has been reproduced on the NetLogo platform. Several models are available:


  7. A. Kannankeril is leading an open-source project for translating the models of Growing Artificial Societies in Java. Visit the project Growing Artificial Societies: Sugarscape.


  9. Tony Bigbee implemented Epstein and Axtell's Sugarscape on MASON. Please visit MASON Sugarscape.


  11. Miles Parker took up again the development of Ascape. Please visit ASCAPE.


  13. A few implementations of Sugarscape on Python are available:


  15. A Repast Sugarscape is available.

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